Sweden has extremely detailed information about individual jobs, covering a significant fraction of the country’s economy.
These data are used to analyze promotion-from-within, worker mobility, and wage setting behavior. Even in a highly
unionized and regulated economy such as Sweden’s, there is considerable mobility and external hiring at all
white-collar levels. There is much promotion from within, but no well-defined ports of entry. Also, short
term changes in wages are affected by factors that are indiosyncratic to individual firms. In the long term,
wages are determined externally, reflecting either the market or centralized bargaining.